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Potential oral or head and neck findings of bulimia and anorexia include dental erosion, xerostomia, increased rate of caries, and sialadenosis. Vomiting exposes teeth to acidic gastric contents, which leads to enamel erosion. The erosion pattern tends to involve the lingual surfaces of the maxillary anterior teeth ( Figure 12 ) and, in severe cases, the buccal surfaces of the posterior mandibular teeth. 39 Patients may have dental sensitivity to cold or sweet stimuli. Xerostomia may be caused by medications often used by patients with bulimia or anorexia (., antidepressants, diuretics, laxatives), as well as by vomiting and excessive exercise. 40 Because the buffering and cleansing properties of saliva are important for prevention of tooth decay, xerostomia leads to increased caries risk. Additionally, sialadenosis affects approximately 25 percent of patients with bulimia; bilateral parotid enlargement is the most common presentation. 41
Sixty of 77 (79%) IEC members participated. Consensus was reached on 12 statements, including that systemic corticosteroids should generally be avoided but can be used rarely for severe atopic dermatitis under certain circumstances, including a lack of other treatment options, as a bridge to other systemic therapies or phototherapy, during acute flares in need of immediate relief, in anticipation of a major life event or in the most severe cases. If used, treatment should be limited to short-term. Most respondents agreed that systemic corticosteroids should never be used in children, but consensus was not reached on that statement. The conclusions of our expert group are limited by a dearth of high-quality published evidence. If more stringent consensus criteria were applied (., requiring <20% of respondents marking towards “strongly disagree,” consensus would have been reached on fewer statements.