Oral tradition

However, Jacob Neusner argues that the Mishnah does far more than expound upon and organize the Biblical commandments. Rather, important topics covered by the Mishnah "rest on no scriptural foundations whatsoever," such as portions of the civil law tractates of Bava Kamma , Bava Metzia and Bava Batra . [8] In other words, "To perfect the [Written] Torah, the Oral tradition had to provide for a variety of transactions left without any law at all in Scripture." [8] Just as portions of the Torah reflect (according to the documentary hypothesis ) the agenda of the Levite priesthood in centralizing worship in the Temple in Jerusalem and legitimizing their exclusive authority over the sacrificial cult, so too can the Mishnah be seen as reflecting the unique "program" of the Tannaim and their successors to develop an egalitarian form of Judaism with an emphasis on social justice and an applicability throughout the Jewish diaspora. [8] [9] As a result, the Talmud often finds the rabbis combing scripture for textual support to justify existing religious practice, rather than deriving the practice organically from the language of scripture. [8]

As explained on pages 30-34 of HROP, even so basic a concept as a poetic line varies dramatically from one oral poetry to another. Relatively seldom, in fact, does it turn out to mirror the syllabic, foot-structured increment with which most modern Western readers are familiar. As illustration of that principle of diversity, I provide here a short reading from Beowulf, in the original Old English language. As you will hear, Old English poetic lines depend not on syllables and feet but on stresses and alliteration. Here is the passage in question, lines 51-54 of the epic poem Beowulf from the Anglo-Saxon oral tradition:

Because of repression during the Franco dictatorship (1939–75), the development of oral history in Spain was quite limited until the 1970s. It became well-developed in the early 1980s, and often had a focus on the Civil War years (1936–39), especially regarding the losers whose stories had been suppressed. The field was based at the University of Barcelona. Professor Mercedes Vilanova was a leading exponent, and combined it with her interest in quantification and social history. The Barcelona group sought to integrate oral sources with traditional written sources to create mainstream, not ghettoized, historical interpretations. They sought to give a public voice to neglected groups, such as women, illiterates, political leftists, and ethnic minorities. [20]

Notes on the Pauline Letters:
* 1 Tim, 2 Tim, Titus are usually called the "Pastoral Letters" since they are addressed to leaders or "shepherds" of Christian communities.
* Eph, Phil, Col, Phlm are sometimes called "Prison Letters" since Paul apparently wrote them while in prison (Eph 3:1; 4:1; Phil 1:7, 13-14; Col 4:3, 10; Phlm 9-10).
* Rom, 1 Cor, 2 Cor, Gal, Phil, 1Thess, Phlm are often called the "Undisputed Letters," since most scholars agree they were written by Paul himself.
* Eph, Col, 2 Thess, and 1 Tim, 2 Tim, Titus are often called the "Disputed" or "Deuteropauline Letters," since many scholars believe they were written by Paul's followers after his death, rather than by Paul himself; but scholarly opinion is divided, with some scholars arguing for their authenticity.

But Polycarp also was not only instructed by apostles, and conversed with many who had seen Christ, but was also, by apostles in Asia, appointed bishop of the Church in Smyrna…always taught the things which he had learned from the apostles, and which the Church has handed down, and which alone are true. To these things all the Asiatic Churches testify, as do also those men who have succeeded Polycarp down to the present time -- a man who was of much greater weight, and a more stedfast witness of truth, than Valentinus, and Marcion, and the rest of the heretics. He it was who, coming to Rome in the time of Anicetus caused many to turn away from the aforesaid heretics to the Church of God, proclaiming that he had received this one and sole truth from the apostles... John, the disciple of the Lord…exclaiming, "Let us fly, lest even the bath-house fall down, because Cerinthus, the enemy of the truth, is within." And Polycarp himself replied to Marcion, who met him on one occasion, and said, "Dost thou know me?" "I do know thee, the first-born of Satan" (Irenaeus. Adversus Haeres. Book III, Chapter 4, Verse 3 and Chapter 3, Verse 4).

Oral tradition

oral tradition

Notes on the Pauline Letters:
* 1 Tim, 2 Tim, Titus are usually called the "Pastoral Letters" since they are addressed to leaders or "shepherds" of Christian communities.
* Eph, Phil, Col, Phlm are sometimes called "Prison Letters" since Paul apparently wrote them while in prison (Eph 3:1; 4:1; Phil 1:7, 13-14; Col 4:3, 10; Phlm 9-10).
* Rom, 1 Cor, 2 Cor, Gal, Phil, 1Thess, Phlm are often called the "Undisputed Letters," since most scholars agree they were written by Paul himself.
* Eph, Col, 2 Thess, and 1 Tim, 2 Tim, Titus are often called the "Disputed" or "Deuteropauline Letters," since many scholars believe they were written by Paul's followers after his death, rather than by Paul himself; but scholarly opinion is divided, with some scholars arguing for their authenticity.

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