Oral t

Low levels of serotonin , a neurotransmitter in the brain, have been linked to depression . High levels of estrogen, as in first-generation COCPs, and progestin, as in some progestin-only contraceptives, have been shown to lower the brain serotonin levels by increasing the concentration of a brain enzyme that reduces serotonin. This observation, along with some small research studies [66] have inspired speculation that the pill causes depression. In 2016, a large Danish study of one million women showed that use of COCPs, especially among adolescents, was associated with a statistically significantly increased risk of subsequent depression, although the sizes of the effects are small (for example, % of the women who took any form of oral birth control were prescribed anti-depressants for the first time, compared to % of women in the control group). [67]

Oral t

oral t


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