Illicit anabolic steroid use in athletes a case series analysis

Drugs such as Nolvedex bind to the oestrogen receptors , therefore reducing the effects of the heightened oestrogen in the body. Such drugs do nothing to reduce the amount of oestrogen in the body; they merely reduce its effects via competition for the receptors . If the user wishes to reduce the amount of oestrogen they should look to drugs such as proviron and anastrozole , which are known as anti-aromatases - . they lower the conversion of the steroid to oestrogen and therefore reduces the overall amount of oestrogen present.

Transdermal patches (adhesive patches placed on the skin) may also be used to deliver a steady dose through the skin and into the bloodstream. Testosterone-containing creams and gels that are applied daily to the skin are also available, but absorption is inefficient (roughly 10%, varying between individuals) and these treatments tend to be more expensive. Individuals who are especially physically active and/or bathe often may not be good candidates, since the medication can be washed off and may take up to six hours to be fully absorbed. There is also the risk that an intimate partner or child may come in contact with the application site and inadvertently dose himself or herself; children and women are highly sensitive to testosterone and can suffer unintended masculinization and health effects, even from small doses. Injection is the most common method used by individuals administering AAS for non-medical purposes. [45]

Illicit anabolic steroid use in athletes a case series analysis

illicit anabolic steroid use in athletes a case series analysis

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