Calcium Indicators are small molecules that can chelate calcium ions. All these molecules are based on an EGTA homologue called BAPTA (with exception of coelenterazines), with high selectivity for calcium (Ca) ions versus magnesium (Mg) ions. This group of indicators includes fura-2, indo-1, fluo-3, BTC, Rhod-2, etc. These dyes are generally used with the chelator carboxyl groups masked as acetoxymethyl esters, in order to render the molecule lipophilic and to allow easy entrance into the cell. Once the indicator is in the cell, cellular esterases will free the carboxyl and the indicator will be able to bind calcium.
In a retrospective study, Abejon and associates (2007) assessed the effectiveness of PRF applied to the lumbar DRG for the treatment of LBP. This study analyzed the findings of 54 patients who underwent 75 PRF procedures. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the etiology of the lesion: (i) herniated disc (HD), (ii) spinal stenosis (SS), and (iii) failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). The analgesic effectiveness of the technique was assessed using a 10-point NRS at baseline and, along with the Global Perceived Effect (GPE), at 30, 60, 90, and 180 days. The reduction in pain medications and the number of complications associated with the technique were assessed. A decrease in the NRS score was observed in patients with HD (p < ) and SS (p < ), but not in those with FBSS. The GPE scores confirmed this finding. No complications were noted. The authors concluded that PRF of the DRG was significantly more effective in HD and SS than in FBSS patients. The application of PRF was ineffective in FBSS.
A common side effect we hear a lot about is in regards to anabolic steroids possible negative effect on the liver. While this can be a problem its important to understand why and what you can do to prevent it. While steroids side effects surrounding the liver are very real, in-short the largest cause for this problem is the use of oral anabolic steroids; in general, injectable steroids will not cause a problem. Further, this does not mean we cannot use oral anabolic steroids but abuse of orals is a higher risk than with injectables. By keeping our oral steroid use to one oral at a time, using orals for shorter durations as well as taking an herbal liver support supplement will greatly ease any negative steroids side effects you may incur with steroid use.