Schlievert had already shown which toxins, or “ superantigens ,” produced by staph bacteria can disrupt the immune system and cause a rare and potentially fatal illness called toxic shock syndrome , but his team decided to take this further and examine whether they might also be able to promote diabetes. They found that the toxins interact with the bodies’ fat cells and immune system, causing systematic inflammation. This in turn causes cells to become resistant to insulin and leads to other symptoms seen in Type 2 diabetes.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) resembles type 2 DM in several respects, involving a combination of relatively inadequate insulin secretion and responsiveness. It occurs in about 2–10% of all pregnancies and may improve or disappear after delivery.  However, after pregnancy approximately 5–10% of women with gestational diabetes are found to have diabetes mellitus, most commonly type 2.  Gestational diabetes is fully treatable, but requires careful medical supervision throughout the pregnancy. Management may include dietary changes, blood glucose monitoring, and in some cases, insulin may be required.
Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose, or blood sugar , levels are too high. Glucose comes from the foods you eat. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose get into your cells to give them energy. With type 1 diabetes , your body does not make insulin. With type 2 diabetes , the more common type, your body does not make or use insulin well. Without enough insulin, the glucose stays in your blood. You can also have prediabetes . This means that your blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes. Having prediabetes puts you at a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes.